Nennt mich Ismael.“ Mit diesem Satz beginnt eines der berühmtesten Bücher der Welt. Es heißt „Moby Dick“. Geschrieben hat es ein Mann. Ismael und Ahab aus theologischer Sicht in Moby Dick | Warkentin, Gerhard | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. "Moby Dick" von Herman Melville ist ein politischer Roman, ohne dass darin ein politisches Wort vorkommt.
Ismael und Ahab aus theologischer Sicht in Moby DickIm Roman Moby Dick wird die Geschichte von Ismael erzählt. Dieser heuert auf dem Walfänger Pequod an und gewinnt in Quiqueg, der aus der Südsee stammt,. "Moby Dick" von Herman Melville ist ein politischer Roman, ohne dass darin ein politisches Wort vorkommt. Moby-Dick beginnt mit dem Satz: “Call me Ishmael.” (Deutsch: „Nennt mich Ismael.“). Es folgt die Ich-Erzählung des Matrosen Ismael (sein voller Name wird nie.
Moby Dick Ismael Search clues VideoMoby-Dick: A Bosom Friend
Betfair.De der Reportage des ZDF wird Moby Dick Ismael Streamer Moby Dick Ismael kritisiert. - InhaltsverzeichnisWenn ich schreibe, was mich wirklich bewegt, werde ich dafür geächtet - weil es sich nicht auszahlt.
Sieben Tage die Moby Dick Ismael. - Moby Dick entsteht aus SchneeStarbuck macht sich Sorgen darüber, dass der Kapitän das Schiff in eine Katastrophe hineinnavigieren könnte.
Ishmael describes a fine perfume that is made from oil that collects only when a whale smells his worst. This oil collects in the bowels of a sick a dying whale.
Yet it is used in the finest perfumes. Does your business stink? Could there be any perfume in there? Ishmael—the wanderer—is the lone survivor primarily because of his leadership to adapt to the waves of change, to cope with the unfamiliar, to wrest meaning even from the perceived Mean.
Consider the savage harpooner in the novel Queequeg. He and Ishmael, a Christian, are the Odd Couple. Yet they become good friends because of —not in spite of —their differences.
They wander into each others lives. And add wonder to each other — the ultimate leadership skill. Keep wandering.
Keep wondering. Keep searching for the interdependence, purpose and learning; for the, focus teamwork, value and opportunity.
You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.
Even the topic of Jonah and the Whale may be authentic, for Mudge contributed sermons on Jonah to Sailor's Magazine .
The crew was not as heterogenous or exotic as the crew of the Pequod. Five were foreigners, four of them Portuguese, and the others were American either at birth or naturalized.
Three black men were in the crew, two seamen and the cook. Fleece, the black cook of the Pequod , was probably modeled on this Philadelphia-born William Maiden.
Starbuck was discharged at Tahiti under mysterious circumstances. Ahab seems to have had no model, though his death may have been based on an actual event.
Melville was aboard The Star in May with two sailors from the Nantucket who could have told him that they had seen their second mate "taken out of a whaleboat by a foul line and drowned".
In addition to his own experience on the whaling ship Acushnet , two actual events served as the genesis for Melville's tale. The other event was the alleged killing in the late s of the albino sperm whale Mocha Dick , in the waters off the Chilean island of Mocha.
Mocha Dick was rumored to have 20 or so harpoons in his back from other whalers, and appeared to attack ships with premeditated ferocity.
One of his battles with a whaler served as subject for an article by explorer Jeremiah N. This renowned monster, who had come off victorious in a hundred fights with his pursuers, was an old bull whale, of prodigious size and strength.
From the effect of age, or more probably from a freak of nature Significantly, Reynolds writes a first-person narration that serves as a frame for the story of a whaling captain he meets.
The captain resembles Ahab and suggests a similar symbolism and single-minded motivation in hunting this whale, in that when his crew first encounters Mocha Dick and cowers from him, the captain rallies them:.
As he drew near, with his long curved back looming occasionally above the surface of the billows, we perceived that it was white as the surf around him; and the men stared aghast at each other, as they uttered, in a suppressed tone, the terrible name of MOCHA DICK!
Mocha Dick had over encounters with whalers in the decades between and the s. He was described as being gigantic and covered in barnacles.
Although he was the most famous, Mocha Dick was not the only white whale in the sea, nor the only whale to attack hunters. Melville remarked, "Ye Gods!
What a commentator is this Ann Alexander whale. I wonder if my evil art has raised this monster. While Melville had already drawn on his different sailing experiences in his previous novels, such as Mardi , he had never focused specifically on whaling.
The 18 months he spent as an ordinary seaman aboard the whaler Acushnet in —42, and one incident in particular, now served as inspiration.
During a mid-ocean "gam" rendezvous at sea between ships , he met Chase's son William, who lent him his father's book. Melville later wrote:. I questioned him concerning his father's adventure; This was the first printed account of it I had ever seen.
The reading of this wondrous story on the landless sea, and so close to the very latitude of the shipwreck, had a surprising effect upon me.
The book was out of print, and rare. Melville let his interest in the book be known to his father-in-law, Lemuel Shaw , whose friend in Nantucket procured an imperfect but clean copy which Shaw gave to Melville in April Melville read this copy avidly, made copious notes in it, and had it bound, keeping it in his library for the rest of his life.
Moby-Dick contains large sections—most of them narrated by Ishmael—that seemingly have nothing to do with the plot, but describe aspects of the whaling business.
Hart ,  which is credited with influencing elements of Melville's work, most accounts of whaling tended to be sensational tales of bloody mutiny, and Melville believed that no book up to that time had portrayed the whaling industry in as fascinating or immediate a way as he had experienced it.
Melville found the bulk of his data on whales and whaling in five books, the most important of which was by the English ship's surgeon Thomas Beale, Natural History of the Sperm Whale , a book of reputed authority which Melville bought on July 10, Vincent, the general influence of this source is to supply the arrangement of whaling data in chapter groupings.
The third book was the one Melville reviewed for the Literary World in , J. Ross Browne's Etchings of a Whaling Cruise , which may have given Melville the first thought for a whaling book, and in any case contains passages embarrassingly similar to passages in Moby-Dick.
Cheever's The Whale and His Captors , was used for two episodes in Moby-Dick but probably appeared too late in the writing of the novel to be of much more use.
Although the book became the standard whaling reference soon after publication, Melville satirized and parodied it on several occasions—for instance in the description of narwhales in the chapter "Cetology", where he called Scoresby "Charley Coffin" and gave his account "a humorous twist of fact": "Scoresby will help out Melville several times, and on each occasion Melville will satirize him under a pseudonym.
Scholars have concluded that Melville composed Moby-Dick in two or even three stages. Yet I mean to give the truth of the thing, spite of this.
Bezanson objects that the letter contains too many ambiguities to assume "that Dana's 'suggestion' would obviously be that Melville do for whaling what he had done for life on a man-of-war in White-Jacket ".
The most positive statements are that it will be a strange sort of a book and that Melville means to give the truth of the thing, but what thing exactly is not clear.
Melville may have found the plot before writing or developed it after the writing process was underway. Considering his elaborate use of sources, "it is safe to say" that they helped him shape the narrative, its plot included.
Ishmael, in the early chapters, is simply the narrator, just as the narrators in Melville's earlier sea adventures had been, but in later chapters becomes a mystical stage manager who is central to the tragedy.
Less than two months after mentioning the project to Dana, Melville reported in a letter of June 27 to Richard Bentley, his English publisher:.
My Dear Sir, — In the latter part of the coming autumn I shall have ready a new work; and I write you now to propose its publication in England.
Nathaniel Hawthorne and his family had moved to a small red farmhouse near Lenox, Massachusetts , at the end of March The most intense work on the book was done during the winter of —, when Melville had changed the noise of New York City for a farm in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.
The move may well have delayed finishing the book. Yet, altogether, write the other way I cannot. So the product is a final hash, and all my books are botches.
This is the stubborn Melville who stood by Mardi and talked about his other, more commercial books with contempt. The letter also reveals how Melville experienced his development from his 25th year: "Three weeks have scarcely passed, at any time between then and now, that I have not unfolded within myself.
But I feel that I am now come to the inmost leaf of the bulb, and that shortly the flower must fall to the mould.
Buell finds the evidence that Melville changed his ambitions during writing "on the whole convincing", since the impact of Shakespeare and Hawthorne was "surely monumental",  but others challenge the theories of the composition in three ways.
The first raises objections on the use of evidence and the evidence itself. Bryant finds "little concrete evidence, and nothing at all conclusive, to show that Melville radically altered the structure or conception of the book".
Bryant and Springer object to the conclusion that Hawthorne inspired Melville to write Ahab's tragic obsession into the book; Melville already had experienced other encounters which could just as well have triggered his imagination, such as the Bible's Jonah and Job, Milton's Satan, Shakespeare's King Lear, Byron's heroes.
His language is already "richly steeped in 17th-century mannerisms", characteristics of Moby-Dick.
A third type calls upon the literary nature of passages used as evidence. According to Milder, the cetological chapters cannot be leftovers from an earlier stage of composition and any theory that they are "will eventually founder on the stubborn meaningfulness of these chapters", because no scholar adhering to the theory has yet explained how these chapters "can bear intimate thematic relation to a symbolic story not yet conceived".
Buell finds that theories based on a combination of selected passages from letters and what are perceived as "loose ends" in the book not only "tend to dissolve into guesswork", but he also suggests that these so-called loose ends may be intended by the author: repeatedly the book mentions "the necessary unfinishedness of immense endeavors".
Melville first proposed the British publication in a June 27, letter to Richard Bentley , London publisher of his earlier works. Textual scholar G. Thomas Tanselle explains that for these earlier books, American proof sheets had been sent to the British publisher and that publication in the United States had been held off until the work had been set in type and published in England.
This procedure was intended to provide the best though still uncertain claim for the UK copyright of an American work. The final stages of composition overlapped with the early stages of publication.
In June , Melville wrote to Hawthorne that he was in New York to "work and slave on my 'Whale' while it is driving through the press".
Three weeks later, the typesetting was almost done, as he announced to Bentley on July "I am now passing thro' the press, the closing sheets of my new work".
Since earlier chapters were already plated when he was revising the later ones, Melville must have "felt restricted in the kinds of revisions that were feasible".
On July 20, Melville accepted, after which Bentley drew up a contract on August For over a month, these proofs had been in Melville's possession, and because the book would be set anew in London he could devote all his time to correcting and revising them.
He still had no American publisher, so the usual hurry about getting the British publication to precede the American was not present. He published the book less than four weeks later.
The title of a new work by Mr. Melville, in the press of Harper and Brothers, and now publishing in London by Mr. On October 18, the British edition, The Whale , was published in a printing of only copies,  fewer than Melville's previous books.
Their slow sales had convinced Bentley that a smaller number was more realistic. The London Morning Herald on October 20 printed the earliest known review.
On November 19, Washington received the copy to be deposited for copyright purposes. The first American printing of 2, copies was almost the same as the first of Mardi , but the first printing of Melville's other three Harper books had been a thousand copies more.
The British edition, set by Bentley's printers from the American page proofs with Melville's revisions and corrections, differs from the American edition in over wordings and thousands of punctuation and spelling changes.
Excluding the preliminaries and the one extract, the three volumes of the British edition came to pages  and the single American volume to pages.
This list was probably drawn up by Melville himself: the titles of chapters describing encounters of the Pequod with other ships had—apparently to stress the parallelisms between these chapters—been standardized to "The Pequod meets the For unknown reasons, the "Etymology" and "Extracts" were moved to the end of the third volume.
Melville's involvement with this rearrangement is not clear: if it was Bentley's gesture toward accommodating Melville, as Tanselle suggests,  its selection put an emphasis on the quotation Melville might not have agreed with.
The largest of Melville's revisions is the addition to the British edition of a word footnote in Chapter 87 explaining the word "gally".
The edition also contains six short phrases and some 60 single words lacking in the American edition. The British publisher hired one or more revisers who were, in the evaluation of scholar Steven Olsen-Smith, responsible for "unauthorized changes ranging from typographical errors and omissions to acts of outright censorship".
These expurgations also meant that any corrections or revisions Melville had marked upon these passages are now lost.
The final difference in the material not already plated is that the "Epilogue", thus Ishmael's miraculous survival, is omitted from the British edition.
Obviously, the epilogue was not an afterthought supplied too late for the edition, for it is referred to in "The Castaway": "in the sequel of the narrative, it will then be seen what like abandonment befell myself.
Since nothing objectionable was in it, most likely it was somehow lost by Bentley's printer when the "Etymology" and "Extracts" were moved. After the sheets had been sent, Melville changed the title.
After expressing his hope that Bentley would receive this change in time, Allan said that "Moby-Dick is a legitimate title for the book, being the name given to a particular whale who if I may so express myself is the hero of the volume".
Changing the title was not a problem for the American edition, since the running heads throughout the book only showed the titles of the chapters, and the title page, which would include the publisher's name, could not be printed until a publisher was found.
When Allan's letter arrived, no sooner than early October, Bentley had already announced The Whale in both the Athenaem and the Spectator of October 4 and The British printing of copies sold fewer than within the first four months.
In , some remaining sheets were bound in a cheaper casing, and in , enough sheets were still left to issue a cheap edition in one volume. About 1, copies were sold within 11 days, and then sales slowed down to less than the next year.
After three years, the first edition was still available, almost copies of which were lost when a fire broke out at the firm in December In , a second printing of copies was issued, in , a third of copies, and finally in , a fourth printing of copies, which sold so slowly that no new printing was ordered.
First, British literary criticism was more sophisticated and developed than in the still-young republic, with British reviewing done by "cadres of brilliant literary people"  who were "experienced critics and trenchant prose stylists",  while the United States had only "a handful of reviewers" capable enough to be called critics, and American editors and reviewers habitually echoed British opinion.
Twenty-one reviews appeared in London, and later one in Dublin. Melville himself never saw these reviews, and Parker calls it a "bitter irony" that the reception overseas was "all he could possibly have hoped for, short of a few conspicuous proclamations that the distance between him and Shakespeare was by no means immeasurable.
One of the earliest reviews, by the extremely conservative critic Henry Chorley  in the highly regarded London Athenaeum , described it as. The idea of a connected and collected story has obviously visited and abandoned its writer again and again in the course of composition.
The style of his tale is in places disfigured by mad rather than bad English; and its catastrophe is hastily, weakly, and obscurely managed.
Melville cannot do without savages, so he makes half of his dramatis personae wild Indians, Malays, and other untamed humanities", who appeared in "an odd book, professing to be a novel; wantonly eccentric, outrageously bombastic; in places charmingly and vividly descriptive".
Because the English edition omitted the epilogue describing Ishmael's escape, British reviewers read a book with a first-person narrator who apparently did not survive.
Other reviewers accepted the flaws they perceived. John Bull praised the author for making literature out of unlikely and even unattractive matter, and the Morning Post found that delight far outstripped the improbable character of events.
Melville's style was often praised, although some found it excessive or too American. Some sixty reviews appeared in America, the criterion for counting as a review being more than two lines of comment.
The earliest American review, in the Boston Post for November 20, quoted the London Athenaeum ' s scornful review, not realizing that some of the criticism of The Whale did not pertain to Moby-Dick.
This last point, and the authority and influence of British criticism in American reviewing, is clear from the review's opening: "We have read nearly one half of this book, and are satisfied that the London Athenaeum is right in calling it 'an ill-compounded mixture of romance and matter-of-fact'".
The Post deemed the price of one dollar and fifty cents far too much: "'The Whale' is not worth the money asked for it, either as a literary work or as a mass of printed paper".
The reviewer of the December New York Eclectic Magazine had actually read Moby-Dick in full, and was puzzled why the Athenaeum was so scornful of the ending.
The attack on The Whale by the Spectator was reprinted in the December New York International Magazine , which inaugurated the influence of another unfavorable review.
Rounding off what American readers were told about the British reception, in January Harper's Monthly Magazine attempted some damage control, and wrote that the book had "excited a general interest" among the London magazines.
The most influential American review, ranked according to the number of references to it, appeared in the weekly magazine Literary World , which had printed Melville's "Mosses" essay the preceding year.
The author of the unsigned review in two installments, on November 15 and 22, was later identified as publisher Evert Duyckinck.
In the second installment, Duyckinck described Moby-Dick as three books rolled into one: he was pleased with the book as far as it was a thorough account of the sperm whale, less so with it as far as the adventures of the Pequod crew were considered, perceiving the characters as unrealistic and expressing inappropriate opinions on religions, and condemned the essayistic rhapsodizing and moralizing with what he thought was little respect of what "must be to the world the most sacred associations of life violated and defaced.
What a book Melville has written! It gives me an idea of much greater power than his preceding ones. It hardly seemed to me that the review of it, in the Literary World, did justice to its best points.
The Transcendental socialist George Ripley published a review in the New York Tribune for November 22, in which he compared the book favorably to Mardi , because the "occasional touches of the subtle mysticism" was not carried on to excess but kept within boundaries by the solid realism of the whaling context.
Melville's friend Nathaniel Parker Willis, reviewing the book in November 29 Home Journal , found it "a very racy, spirited, curious and entertaining book Porter praised the book, and all of Melville's five earlier works, as the writings "of a man who is at once philosopher, painter, and poet".
Many reviewers, Parker observes, had come to the conclusion that Melville was capable of producing enjoyable romances, but they could not see in him the author of great literature.
However, only New York's literary underground showed interest, just enough to keep Melville's name circulating for the next 25 years in the capital of American publishing.
During this time, a few critics were willing to devote time, space, and a modicum of praise to Melville and his works, or at least those that could still be easily obtained or remembered.
Other works, especially the poetry, went largely forgotten. In his idiosyncratic but influential Studies in Classic American Literature , novelist, poet, and short story writer D.
Lawrence celebrated the originality and value of American authors, among them Melville. Perhaps surprisingly, Lawrence saw Moby-Dick as a work of the first order despite his using the expurgated original English edition which also lacked the epilogue.
The Modern Library brought out Moby-Dick in and the Lakeside Press in Chicago commissioned Rockwell Kent to design and illustrate a striking three-volume edition which appeared in Random House then issued a one-volume trade version of Kent's edition, which in they reprinted as a less expensive Modern Library Giant.
The novel has been adapted or represented in art, film, books, cartoons, television, and more than a dozen versions in comic-book format.
American author Ralph Ellison wrote a tribute to the book in the prologue of his novel Invisible Man. The narrator remembers a moment of truth under the influence of marijuana and evokes a church service: "Brothers and sisters, my text this morning is the 'Blackness of Blackness.
Both Ahab and Ishmael are fascinated by the whale, but whereas Ahab perceives him exclusively as evil, Ishmael keeps an open mind. Ahab has a static world view, blind to new information, but Ishmael's world view is constantly in flux as new insights and realizations occur.
Only fourteen chapters later, in "The Guilder," does he participate in "what is clearly a recapitulation" of the earlier chapter. Ishmael meditates on a wide range of topics.
In addition to explicitly philosophical references, in Chapter 89, for instance, he expounds on the legal concept, "Fast-Fish and Loose-Fish", which he takes to mean that possession, rather than a moral claim, bestows the right of ownership.
Ishmael explains his need to go to sea and travels from Manhattan Island to New Bedford. He is a seasoned sailor, having served on merchant vessels in the past, but this would be his first time aboard a whaling ship.
The inn is crowded and he must share a bed with the tattooed Polynesian , Queequeg , a harpooneer whom Ishmael assumes to be a cannibal.
The next morning Ishmael and Queequeg head for Nantucket. Ishmael signs up for a voyage on the whaler Pequod , under Captain Ahab.
Ahab is obsessed by the white whale, Moby Dick, who on a previous voyage has severed his leg. In his quest for revenge Ahab has lost all sense of responsibility, and when the whale sinks the ship, all crew-members drown, with the exception of Ishmael: "And I only am escaped alone to tell thee" Job says the epigraph.
Ishmael keeps himself afloat on a coffin until he is picked up by another whaling ship, the Rachel. The name Ishmael is Biblical in origin: in Genesis ; ; ; , Ishmael was the son of Abraham by the servant Hagar.
In , the most significant verses for Melville's allegory,  Hagar was cast off after the birth of Isaac , who inherited the covenant of the Lord instead of his older half-brother.
And so the name points to a Biblical analogy that marks Ishmael as the prototype of "wanderer and outcast,"  the man set at odds with his fellows.